# HISTORY OF HOMOLOGY

Keywords:
Homology, Mathematics, Congruent, Polyhedra

### Abstract

Homology theory can be said to start with the Euler polyhedron formula, or Euler characteristic. Homology itself was developed as a away to analyse and classify manifolds according to their cycle. The term homology was first used in boilogy by the anotomist Rich Owen in 1843 when studyig the similarities of vertebrate, fins and limbs defining it as the same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function.

### References

[1] Hoßfeld, U. and Olsson, L., 2005. The history of the homology concept and the “Phylogenetisches Symposium”. Theory in Biosciences, 124(2), pp.243-253.

[2] Hilton, P., 1988. A brief, subjective history of homology and homotopy theory in this century. Mathematics magazine, 61(5), pp.282-291.

[3] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, May 11). Homology (mathematics). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 14 : 43, June 8, 2021,from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Homology (mathematics)& oldid=1022638382

[4] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, May 13). Homology (biology). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 14:40, June 8, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Homology (biology) & oldid=1022997737,

[5] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, February 15). Homological algebra. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.Retrieved14:45,June8,2021,from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Homological algebra & oldid=1006900531

[6] Robert Osserman, Special Projects Director, Mathematical Sciences Research Institute, Berkeley, California. http//www. britannica.com/science/homology-mathematics.

[7] Spemann, H., 1915. DES BEGRIFFS DER HOMOLOGIE. Allgemeine biologie, 4, p.63.

[8] Wagner, G.P., 1996. Homologues, natural kinds and the evolution of modularity. American Zoologist, 36(1), pp.36-43.

[2] Hilton, P., 1988. A brief, subjective history of homology and homotopy theory in this century. Mathematics magazine, 61(5), pp.282-291.

[3] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, May 11). Homology (mathematics). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 14 : 43, June 8, 2021,from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Homology (mathematics)& oldid=1022638382

[4] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, May 13). Homology (biology). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 14:40, June 8, 2021, from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Homology (biology) & oldid=1022997737,

[5] Wikipedia contributors. (2021, February 15). Homological algebra. In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia.Retrieved14:45,June8,2021,from https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Homological algebra & oldid=1006900531

[6] Robert Osserman, Special Projects Director, Mathematical Sciences Research Institute, Berkeley, California. http//www. britannica.com/science/homology-mathematics.

[7] Spemann, H., 1915. DES BEGRIFFS DER HOMOLOGIE. Allgemeine biologie, 4, p.63.

[8] Wagner, G.P., 1996. Homologues, natural kinds and the evolution of modularity. American Zoologist, 36(1), pp.36-43.

Published

2021-08-31

Section

Articles